Tatai Környezetvédelmi Zrt. mottója

disposal: one possible method of waste management. Disposal means any treatment operation that reduces the environmental impact of waste by isolating the waste from the environment or changing the quality of the material. Any operation that leads to a secondary material or energy recovery is also considered disposal.

mine closure: The abandonment or termination of mining activities carried out in accordance with a technical mine closure plan.

mining waste: there is separate legislation that regulates mining waste management—GKM Decree № 14/2008. (IV. 3) on the management of mining waste—, but the Waste Act is referred to when defining the concept of waste within the scope of the Decree. Mining waste means any waste that is generated in conjunction with mining activities.

BAT: the Best Available Techniques, namely all of the techniques used to prevent environmental loads—or at least the reduction of associated impacts—and attenuation of overall environmental impacts. BAT is at the same time a basis for determining emission limit values ​​and actual values.

bauxite: a sedimentary rock consisting of a mix of aluminium, iron or titanium containing minerals and sand, being the prime material for aluminium production. It is often part of the earth's crust, so it is mainly extracted by opencast mining using heavy equipment. Bauxite was not mined before the 20th century, when the usefulness of aluminium was recognized and its production launched. In Hungary, important bauxite mining and processing continued until 2002.

biodegradation: reduction or complete demolition of the complexity of organic pollutants. It is an eco-friendly technology during which the pollution primarily caused by petroleum products is broken down by microorganisms, namely microbes and bacteria into carbon dioxide and water, which are no longer harmful to the environment.

biological (anaerobic) degradation: Anaerobic biodegradation is a waste treatment procedure used around the world. Initially, these procedures were only used in sewage treatment, but now anaerobic systems can be successfully used for industrial, agricultural and municipal waste treatment. The proliferation of anaerobic systems increased in developing countries due to stricter environmental standards for solid waste disposal. The purpose of anaerobic systems is not just waste management and stabilization, but also the production of valuable products, like heat, energy, etc. Biogas produced in this manner is important in many countries as a source of renewable energy.  This activity is regulated by KVVM Decree № 23/2003 (XII. 29.) on technical requirements for biological waste treatment and composting, Section 2(j).

(At Almásfüzitő we do not have a classical biological decomposition as specified in the said Decree, but biodegradation, which is one form of biological procedures in this field.)

bitumen: black artificial material produced by distillation from crude oil. It softens when heated, then it becomes liquid, but it solidifies again after cooling. It is the most common waterproofing material due to its excellent water-repellent properties. It is an important component of asphalt used for road construction.

health effects ELV: concentration of contaminants as regulated by pathological factors. For example, in air protection the air loading degree that does not cause any lasting harm, and must be followed to protect human health.

integrated environmental authorization (IPPC permit): IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) is abbreviated in Hungarian as EKE or EKHE. Any business or organization with a scope of activity listed in Annex 2 of Gov. Decree № 314/2005. (XII. 25.) on environmental impact assessments and integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC) and with an activity volume reaching the limit set therein.

cover material: any material that is typically suitable for waste containment or recultivation purposes. As for Almásfüzitő, the cover material is the end product of the technological process, which—based on certified laboratory tests—meets the prescribed limits, thereby loses its waste status and becomes suitable for the recultivation of damaged areas.

cover layer: cover material that has been applied and spread out on the damaged areas.

authorized waste management company: an entity carrying out waste management activities based on statutory approval in force (official permits).

flue gas: gaseous combustion product generated during the incineration of combustible materials. In addition to carbon dioxide and water vapours, flue gas may also contain air components (mainly nitrogen and oxygen), carbon monoxide, sulphur monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned fuel (natural gas, diesel oil) and solid particles (dust, ashes, fly ash and soot). The main flue gas emitters are industrial and domestic boilers, power generation and/or disposal incinerators, and internal combustion engines.

limit value: tolerable pollution level (concentration) or status indicator imposed by the supervisory departments / authorities.

hydrolysis: a chemical procedure meaning any reaction that keeps chemical compounds in water solution. It is a chemical process where water is one of the reaction partners.

waste: means any substance or object which the holder discards, or is willing or required to discard; (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(23).)

waste management means the collection, transport or treatment of waste or supervision of such operations as a dealer, broker or intermediary organization, as well as the operation of waste management facilities and equipment and the aftercare of waste treatment facilities (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(26).)

waste recovery means any management operation with the main result that the waste serves a useful purpose. Thus, it replaces other materials, which would have otherwise been used to fulfil a particular function. Recovery also means any preparation operation that makes the waste capable of fulfilling the above-mentioned function in the plant or in the wider economy.

waste treatment: means any activity aimed to reduce the negative impact of waste, prevent and exclude environmental pollution, drive the waste back into production or consumption, as well as the application of any treatment procedure, including the after-care of treatment facilities. Waste management includes waste recovery or disposal operations, including recycling or preparation for disposal (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(36).)

IPPC standard: set of requirements specified by the European Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC). This directive defines, for example, the amount of industrial emissions, but also deals in a complex manner with energy efficiency, waste minimization, and environmental restoration of closed premises.

remediation: means any recovery measure aimed to reduce damage to underground or above-ground water and geological layers, to restore the original or nearly original state, as well as the restoration of the service provided by underground water or equivalent.  (Government Decree 219/2004. (VII.21.) on the protection of subsurface waters, Section 3(18).)

treatment: means any utilization or waste disposal operation, also including preparation before utilization or disposal (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(36).)

dumping: means waste disposal in landfills implemented on the surface or in geological formations.  (KvVM Decree № 20/2006. (IV. 5) on certain rules and conditions related to waste disposal and landfills, Section 2(h).)

dump: means any waste disposal facility where waste is stored on the surface or in geological formations. (Section 2(f).)

alkali: solution with a pH value from 7 to 14. Hydroxide ions are released in alkaline water, which causes the pH value of the aqueous solution to increase. In everyday life, we produce slightly alkaline solutions mostly by using sodium compounds (e.g. during washing).

secondary raw material: means any material (by-product) produced during production, manufacturing or handling activities, which is not the primary aim of the production, manufacturing or handling processes. By-products may be used as base or auxiliary materials for making other products.

artificial soil: mixtures used for the replacement of natural soils and made of various organic and inorganic materials or soil-like materials or systems simpler than natural soils. One of the most important types is mixture made of waste. Artificial soil, by its structure and composition, is suitable for the settlement and long-term retention of wildlife.

lime sludge: a waste generated during water softening using lime. During so-called water softening by lime treatment slaked lime is added to the water to be treated, and the lime reacts with Ca2+ and Mg2+ molecules from the water. The highly insoluble precipitate is later separated by settling into softened water and lime sludge.

monitoring (system): measuring, monitoring (co-monitoring) and control network collecting data and tracking the changes of environment parameters, related especially to groundwater and geological layers, including their loads, pollution and damage (including contaminant spread). (Government Decree 219/2004. (VII.21.) on the protection of subsurface waters, Section 3(32).)

NATURA 2000: Natura 2000 set up by the European Union is a coherent European ecological network that ensures the conservation of biological diversity through the protection of community-interest natural habitat types and wild fauna and flora species, and helps to maintain or restore their favourable conservation status. (http://www.natura.2000.hu/hu).

sodium aluminate: white crystalline salt containing anion (NaAl(OH)4). During alumina production through the Bayer process the aluminium oxide from the bauxite dissolves in caustic soda solution, becoming sodium aluminate, but other components of the bauxite remain undissolved.

sodium hydroxide: also known as caustic soda or caustic stick/stone (NaOH). It can be produced by electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water. It is the primary base in chemical industry, used in the production of aluminium, when extracting the intermediate product, i.e. alumina, from bauxite. The solid material or its concentrated solution may induce burns if it comes into contact with skin.

non-hazardous waste: (type of waste: hazardous or non-hazardous) Waste is not considered hazardous if it was included in the waste list both as hazardous and non-hazardous waste, but it was determined as lacking any hazard characteristics specified in Annex 1 of the Waste Act. (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 55(3)(20).)

flue ash: light remnants (ash) of burned material flying in the air. Solid combustion residues are also generated during waste incineration. In addition to slag, 5% to 10% of fly ash also remains after burning, and the latter mainly contains non-combustible minerals, but may also include various contaminants, i.e. fluorides, chlorides and heavy metals.

pH: The pH (pondus Hidrogenii or hydrogen ion exponent) is a chemical compound without dimension, which characterizes the acidity or alkalinity of a given solution. pH values ​​range from 0 to 14; lower values ​​mean acids, while values higher than 7 mean bases (alkali).

recultivation: or land reclamation, making an area suitable for utilization again. Any technical, biological and agronomic processes that transforms a land—previously made infertile by natural or human (anthropogenic) activities— suitable for agriculture, forestry cultivation or other utilization purposes.

to recultivate: To restore an area polluted by environmental or industrial causes to being suitable again for agricultural cultivation, re-use and landscaping. The area is first cleaned, then the ground surface is restored to its original state, covered with new, fertile top-soil, then implanted with plants. Complex wildlife can be settled later on this area, or the flora and fauna move back on their own.

remediation: Hungarian meaning: healing. This expression is most often used for the treatment of contaminated soil, groundwater or sediment. Alternative terms: pollution reduction, rehabilitation, decontamination, soil treatment. Expressions to avoid: soil cleaning, damage removal, relief.

rare earth elements (REE): As their name suggests, rare earth elements (REE) are rare and valuable raw materials, which play a key role in many industries (high-tech industry, military industry, etc.). These elements are: scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanide lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd ), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu) - thus, a total of 17 metals.

pollution: pollutant, or direct or indirect introduction of energy into the environment that may be harmful to geological layers or groundwater condition, human health, ecosystems, environment use or material assets, or may impair or interfere with the enjoyment of the environment. (Government Decree 219/2004. (VII.21.) on the protection of subsurface waters, Section 3(36).)

waste water sludge: fluid material with high water content (60-95%), which remains after the purification of wastewater. In a concentrated form it contains all kinds of harmful and harmless materials present in waste water: 65-75% of human metabolites and other organic waste, inorganic contaminants, inorganic pollutants, residues of household detergents and cleaners, and industrial chemicals.

suspension: see the Latin word “suspensio” (floating). This  is a liquid formulation, in which the fine solid particles are visibly undissolved. Thus, the fine solid particles are visibly separated from the liquid, float in it, while the heavier particles settle to the bottom. The latter can be mixed again with water by shaking.

alumina: aluminium oxide (Al2O3). This is a white powder, an intermediate in the production of aluminium. Alumina is produced from crushed and powdered bauxite through the Bayer process using soda-lye, but it also occurs in nature in the form of corundum. Compressed alumina is very hard and heat resistant, with poor electric conductivity. It is widely used in other industries as well.

recycling /re-use: means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were originally conceived  Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(45).)

hazardous waste: any waste that requires special handling (e.g. electronic products, used oils, etc.), namely, waste that possess at least one hazard characteristic specified in Annex 1 of the Waste Act (Act CLXXXV of 2012 on Waste, Section 2(1)(48).)

line of defence: flood-defence line. This is an embankment system made of homogeneous, impermeable soil materials, which limits the spreading of flood water outside of a defined area, the flood plain.

water resources: surface area or underground space used or designated for use by the water utility company and any exploitable water resources, including any existing or planned water extraction facilities. (Act LVII of 1995 on water management, Annex 1, Section 20).

protected water resources: means water resources provided, where appropriate, with a natural or artificial protection area or facility, are under protection by law, and any activities are or may be restricted by law.

red mud: is a by-product of aluminium production. It is a mixture of processed bauxite and residual alkali slurry. It is a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity  (pH = 13). It may induce burns if it contacts the skin, but is also a danger for the wildlife. It has a reddish colour due of the residual component oxyhydroxide (iron oxide or rust), which is not soluble in water. It is stored and treated, beside alumina factories, in mud storage compartments.

mud holding pond: open or closed mud reservoir where the residues of alumina production are stored. The reservoir is divided in several separate compartments with internal dams. The holding pond is isolated on its sides by watertight walls, while the bottom is made of an impermeable concrete slab, supported by an impermeable soil layer in order to prevent the alkali content from escaping into the environment.

green waste: garden waste suitable for composting, i.e. leaves, wood, and bush cuttings, cut grass and other herbaceous plants, such as weed species. Exceptions are pine and walnut leaves, which are not suitable for composting. As a valuable soil conditioner, compost containing precious nutrients is made by green waste composting. Compost can only be made of biological waste.

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Tatai Környezetvédelmi Zrt. Commercial Representation
Office: 2890 Tata, Baji út 9.
Tel: +36 34 587 063
Fax: +36 34 587 064
E-mail: info@tkv.hu
2890 Tata, Baji út 9.
Telefon: +36 34 587 063
E-mail: kereskedelem@tkv.hu